| Dirleton - East Lothian |
Parish Kirk Estate
History Views Dirleton Castle
Tourist Office |
1 Quality Street,
North Berwick, East Lothian.
© Digitalsport UK
West Links, North Berwick
© Digitalsport UK
Archerfield Mansion House in 1998
© Digitalsport UK
Views of Dirleton and Archerfield
Dirleton Village |
The historic and picturesque village of Dirleton is situated
three miles from North Berwick and forty minutes drive from Edinburgh. To the north, the sandy shores of the Firth of Forth and to
the west, the village of Gullane and the famous Muirfield links, home to the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers.
Dirleton Parish Kirk
Gullane embraced the whole parish of Dirleton until 1612, that year saw the removal of the parish church to the village of
Dirleton. The reason given in an Act of Parliament, 'Golyn was ane decayit place while Dyrleton was a flourishin toun'. Dirleton
Church was built in 1612 and the Archerfield Isle was added in 1650 in the first neoclassical style to be used in Scotland.
The Gothic pinnacles were added to the tower in 1836 and the stain glass window depicting St. Francis and The Animals designed by
Margaret Chilton was installed in 1936. The church is open to the public and the services are listed near the entrance.
East Lothian has several ruined castles but Dirleton is by far the most impressive. The first castles were built around 1100,
introduced by incoming feudal lords from Normandy, Brittany and Flanders. The de Vaux family, who came from Normandy in the 12th
century settled first in a manor house at Elbottle (Archerfield) and then early in the next century relocated to Dirleton where
John de Vaux built the yellow sandstone Castle.
" The picturesque village of Dirleton attracts many visitors
to the historic Castle, charming old Parish Church and traditional village green. " |
| In 1298 after a spirited defence, the Castle fell to the army of Edward I under the command of
Anthony Beck, the fighting Bishop of Durham. In the reign of Robert the Bruce the Castle was in the possession of the Halliburtons
who undertook many alterations including the addition of the draw-bridge and towers. In 1444, William Halliburton founded a
college for priests with their chapel in the grounds of Dirleton Castle. |
Later the property became the stronghold of the Gowrie family but their ill-fated plot against the monarchy, resulted in James VI
confiscating their lands. The Castle was then bestowed on Sir Thomas Erskine who became Lord Dirleton. In 1631 it was sold to
James Maxwell of Innerwick who was created Earl of Dirleton, Lord Fentoun and Elbottle in 1646.
During the civil war in the 1640s the Castle was occupied by Moss Troopers but in November 1650 they were forced to surrender to
Oliver Cromwell's army under the command of General Monk who bombarded the ramparts into the ruin we see today. After the
reinstatement of the Stewarts, Charles II awarded the land to Sir John Nisbet, King's Advocate in 1663. Later the estate fell to
William Nisbet Hamilton using the surname of his parents. He abandoned the castle and built the mansion house at Archerfield. The
estate then passed through marriage to the Nisbet Hamilton-Ogilvy family whose executors sold it to Jackson Russell in 1922 and
then to farmer George Mitchell for £34,000 before the Duke of Hamilton purchased the land in 1962. Dirleton Castle is maintained
by Historic Scotland and is open to the public.
| Dirleton Parish Kirk || Dirleton Castle |
| Fidra Island |
Local historian David Berry writes, the island of Fidra is made up of the North
and South Dogs (related to the German'dogge' and our 'dog' as a follower or companion) are skerries off the main island and are
never connected to the main island at any state of tide. The larger South Dog continues as a treacherous ridge towards Eyebroughy
and means boats must stand well out when coming round the SW corner. The smaller North Dog lies under the lighthouse and is almost
submerged at spring full tide. The part to the SE that is separated from Fidra proper at high tide is Castle Tarbert (from the
gaelic Tarbeairt, an isthmus or portage). Eilbotle (from the Anglian for 'old settlement') was on the nearby shore, which is why
the wood has that name.
Only a stave keep, the later chapel and perhaps some small buildings were on the island itself. Just who lived here is a
fascinating conundrum because after the Goddodin fell in the 7th century, this must have been a no-man's-land among Angle, Pict,
Brython and Viking, with Fidra an important outpost on the coastal sea-routes (easy to get to, big enough to be comfortable &
support some livestock, hard to assault). There are stories of 'the race of Congals (from Congalton?) being slaughtered here by
Vikings in the 9th century and the hill in Yellowcraig wood was probably another stave fort but less secure that Tarbert. However,
no serious archaeology has been done to substantiate any of this. What fascinates me is the mix of origins of local place-names
from all their languages, which must mean they all settled--you don't get your name for a place into use just by passing
The whole place would have been moved bodily to the present Dirleton when John de Vaux (from Rouen) was given the lands there in
the reign of Malcolm IV (1153-1165). He was Steward to Alexander II's household and gifted the now-surplus island and adjoining
poorer land to Dryburgh around 1220. Dirleton was built in the mid-1200's. The St Nicholas chapel is therefore probably a later
element from this time and the place was almost certainly not referred to as 'Eilbotle'
Thomas Stevenson the youngest son of Robert Stevenson and father of Robert Louis Stevenson built the lighthouse on Fidra in 1885.
The lens was made up of a central focal plane surrounded by prisms which refracted light parallel to the centre lens. This produced
a beam of light two meters in diameter which was visible at 21 miles.
The lens weighed approximately 3.5 tons and a clockwork machine kept the light revolving for half-an-hour. The flash effect occurred
when the lens passes between the viewer and the source of light, this is when the lighthouse appears to flash. The clockwork machine
which drove the lighthouse was powered by a large weight descending the tower from top to bottom which kept the machine going for
thirty minutes. This had to be wound up every half-hour with a large handle.
Everyday the keepers climbed to the top of the lighthouse and cleaned the glass and reflectors. The light beamed four white flashes
every half minute followed by an interval of thirty seconds. It was fuelled by paraffin supplied by James 'Paraffin' Young from his
mineral works in West Lothian. The present Fidra light is powered by mains electrcity providing 92,000 candle power and has a visibility
of 24 nautical miles.
In 1900 the keepers were two married couples, the Laidlaw's and the Johnston's. They worked on-station for one month, followed by
two weeks off at the keeper's cottages at Granton. The relief crew and supplies were delivered by the lighthouse ship 'Pharos' and
later the 'Pole Star'.
In 1929, Charles Stevenson and his son D. Alan Stevenson invented the talking beacon which allowed ships to take bearings in thick
fog from radio signals transmitted from the lighthouse.
| Copyright © Douglas Seaton 2014, All Rights Reserved. |